cataloggroup = 'studia-troica-lc-catalog'
Lower City Catalog
Geometric to Archaic Finewares, including Attic Black-Figure
The following catalog is an incomplete representation of the sources of decorated finewares available at Troy from the Geometric to Archaic periods. It does not include the locally produced "G2/3" ware which appears separately. As with many contemporaneous sites, the diversity of archaic sources, including Corinthian and Aegean vessels, increasingly gives way to the growing Attic presence in the regional market for fine tablewares. The ceramics of this period are under study by C. Aslan, with results of this work already published in .
Geometric to Archaic Gray Wares
Vessels fired to gray in a reducing environment represent a continuous tradition of ceramic production extending from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age and archaic period. It is probable that many gray ware vessels are from local workshops. The chronology and comparanda for these products are discussed in .
G2/3 Ware
“G2/3” is an archaic fine ware named for the area of the site in which it was found in the greatest quantity. This term came into regular usage during the University of Cincinnati expedition of the 1930s. McMullen () reviews the history of the ware and provides a catalog that supplements earlier studies. Aslan () catalogs stratified material from D9.
Attic Red-Figure
The presence of Attic Red-Figure pottery is discussed in . The material from recent campaigns is being published by Kathleen Lynch. The presence of Attic wares at Troia is discussed in . The terms used to describe Attic Red-Figure are discussed in .
Attic Black-Glaze
The presence of Attic wares at Troia is discussed in .
Panathenaic Amphoras
Panathenaic amphoras were produced in Athens as prizes for the victors in the games held in that city every four years. It is, however, possible that these vessels were also sold as souvenirs or distributed by means other than direct award. is an extensive discussion of the type. The descriptions below are based on ongoing work by Kathleen Lynch.
Classical to Hellenistic Regional Finewares
The following catalog list a small selection of the black-slipped finewares common in Classical and Hellenistic levels at Ilion.
“Pale Porous” Ware
The term “pale porous” refers to a distinctive group of service vessels with parallels in Achaemenid stone basins. Examples are present in the D09 fourth-century ritual deposit and are discussed by Berlin (). Bieg ( gives a summary of additional finds in the Troad.
Hellenistic West Slope Decoration Vessels
The term "West Slope Decoration" refers to the technique of overpainting vegetal motifs in white or beige paint on black-glaze vessels used in serving and drinking wine. Incision was also used. The technique developed in Athens in the late fourth century BC and was widely adopted in the Aegean area ( :38-71). Such vessels appear at Troy from the late fourth century, with supply coming from regional workshops (:104).
Hellenistic Moldmade Bowls
Hellenistic moldmade bowls are first produced in the late third century. They appear in the Athenian Agora after 224/3 BC and may be an Attic innovation (Rotroff , ). Their production is attested at multiple sites around the Aegean, including Ephesos. The catalog below gives a brief selection of some of the motifs found at Ilion. Such bowls are a regular occurrence in Late Hellenistic deposits and have been published from the Lower City ().
Hellenistic to Roman Gray Wares
Gray finewares remain a component of the tableware assemblage at Ilion into the Roman period. Ephesus is a major center for their production, though the material at Ilion presumably includes vessels from a range of sources.
Italian Sigillata
As used at Ilion, the term "Italian Sigillata" refers to the well-made red-slipped tableware either from Italian workshops or made in an Italian style. This qualification is necessary because, as stressed by C. Wells in his introductory note to the 1990 Conspectus of "Italian-type" forms, "an archaeologist can no longer presume to tell by the unaided eye where a piece of sigillata was manufactured." Nonetheless, "Italian Sigillata" remains current as a name () so it is used here. Given the location of the site, however, it is not unreasonable to think that the vessels listed below are all of Italian manufacture, not just of Italian appearance and form. Widespread production of red tablewares in Italy extends from the mid-first century into at least the 2nd century AD, though no examples of the distinctive later material are listed below. At no point is Italian Sigillata common at Ilion, though its appearance does indicate the site's integration into the long-distance exchange networks facilitated by the rise of Roman power in the Mediterranean.
Eastern Sigillata A
The term “Eastern Sigillata A” refers to a late hellenistic to early Roman red-slipped tableware produced in Northern Syria, a regional attribution firmly grounded in distributional evidence and supported by scientific analysis. The ware is distinguished by the fineness of its fabric, which stands out as very pale in comparison to the deep red-slip that usually covers all surfaces. A full range of plates, bowls and jugs was produced. Early forms develop in the context of an eastern Mediterranean Hellenistic koine, while later products are influenced by trends originating in Italian workshops. Many ESA forms are mold-made and exhibit distinct delineation between walls and floors as well as elegantly curved exterior and base profiles. A further technical feature is the frequent occurrence of a "double-dipping streak" that is the result of, first, one half of a vessel being dipped in dilute slip and then the other half being similarly treated. The consequent overlap produced a line of thicker slip that became visibly darker during firing. Only the most basic and accessible bibliography appears below.
Eastern Sigillata B
Eastern Sigillata B is a Roman period fine tableware manufactured at workshops in or near Tralles in western Asia Minor. Its early forms show Italian influence and at least two early workshops may have been established by potters coming from the west . Though always less common than the ESC/Candarli, which was made in closer workshops, ESB is a regular feature in first and early second century AD deposits. The ware is recognizable by its thick "soapy" slip and highly micaceous fabric, both of which attributes are more pronounced in later vessels. Occasionally, ESB is fired black, with one such example listed below.
Eastern Sigillata C (Çandarli)
The terms "Eastern Sigillata C" (ESC) and "Çandarli" are meant to refer broadly to Roman period production of red-slipped table wares in and near to both Bergama, ancient Pergamum, and Candarli, ancient Pitane. Both "ESC," coined by Kenyon as a result of her work at Samaria (), and "Candarli," first used by Loeschke following his work at the site (), should therefore be considered generic terms when used below. Starting with late first century BC forms, ESC is recognizable as a separate production influenced by traditions established in the Hellenistic workshops of Pergamum. By the late first-century AD, ESC plates and bowls, such as Loeschke Forms 1, 9, 15, and 20, are common at Ilion. These vessels frequently have a relatively orange slip, which is a feature of early products from ESC workshops. In the second century, the flanged bowl Loeschke form 19 is the dominant ceramic table vessel in use by the households of the city. It is, however, found in conjunction with the larger bowl Loeschke form 26. The two bowl forms develop into Hayes forms 3 and 2 respectively. The large bowls Hayes form 1, along with variants, also occur. The same range of variants is found at Argos (:pl. 29). By the third century, Hayes form 4 dishes are also very common. The end of ESC production is not well documented, though fourth century deposits continue to have large amounts of ESC that may not all be residual, particularly the Hayes form 4 dishes. Eventually, ESC is replaced by Phocaean Red-Slip (PRS), which is the dominant late Roman table ware.
Pontic Sigillata
Vessels originating from the various sigillata production centers of the northern coast of the Black Sea are grouped under the term "Pontic Sigitllata." Zhuravlev () provides a relatively up to date introduction to the production of red-slipped vessels in these regions. The Nicopolis ceramic report () discusses and illustrates many examples of related forms circulating in Bulgaria. Other occurrences of these wares at Ilion are published at , no. 37, where the identification is tentative, and at , nos. 39 and 40.
So-called “Brown Slip” Sigillata
We do not know where this is from.
Various Sigillatas
This section includes Roman period sigillatas with minimal representation at Ilion and sherds whose attribution is tentative.
Knidian Relief Ware
has shown that, in addition to the well-known production centers of Knidos and Pergamon, there were multiple workshops producing relief-ware wine jugs so that the grouping of the finds at Troia under the "Knidian" rubric is tentative.
Roman Lead Glaze Ware
Lead glazed vessels are produced at a number of eastern Mediterranean sites and also in the west starting in the first century BC. See for a recent overview of the phenomenon. Chemical analysis of the material from Ilion is being undertaken by Billur Tekkök.
African Red-Slip
The term "African Red-Slip" (ARS) refers to the well-slipped table wares produced in what is now the modern country of Tunisia. These vessels become widely available in the eastern Mediterranean over the course of the third century AD, and Ilion reflects this broad trend with ARS forms 45, 50 and 58 present in third century deposits. Hayes form 53 is well-represented in the late fourth and early fifth centuries and the large plate Hayes form 87 occurs in fills associated with cleanup after an early sixth century earthquake. Many late forms do not appear at Ilion, which is one of many indications that the city did not fully recover from this event; though a form Hayes 91d indicates that supply did continue at a reduced level. The bibliography discussing African Red-Slip is vast so that only a few of the most relevant titles are cited below.
Phocaean Red-Slip
Also known as "Late Roman C," Phocaean Red-Slip is the most common table ware of the fourth through sixth centuries. Varieties of Hayes forms 1, 2 and 3 are common, with form 3 dominant in fills associated with the late 5th and early sixth centuries. Later forms are less common, though examples of Hayes 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10 appear below. The Hayes form 10 is among the latest well-dated ceramics to indicate that activity continued past the early sixth century earthquake. The main typology of Phocaean Red Slip remains that of Hayes published in his Late Roman Pottery (), where the name is "Late Roman C". Hayes adopted "Phocaean Red Slip" in the supplement to this volume (). Subsequent publication of chemical analysis and kiln material confirm the attribution ( and ). Ilion is relatively near the production centers around Phocaea so that many variants on the standard series appear in deposits at the site. This is also the case at Assos () and Ephesos (), which are important points of comparison; similar variants are also known from Scythia ().
Late Roman West Asia Minor 'Light Colored' Ware
Variations on the term "Late Roman Light Coloured-Ware" have been suggested by Hayes (, , , ) in reference to a late roman fine ware that appears at Aegean and Western Anatolian sites as well as farther afield. Vessels are distinguished by a clean, compact fabric with thin, warmly-toned light brown slip. This slip can a have a very slightly glossy appearance when held in direct light. Later products take on a more reddish tone. Decoration consists of interior and exterior rouletting and stamps. Rims are sometimes notched. Although examples decorated in a champlevé technique appear elsewhere, these are not known at Ilion, perhaps because they come later in the series when there is only limited activity at the site.
Wheel-Made Lamps
Mold-Made Lamps
As the name suggests, Roman Thin-Walled vessels are distinctive for the extreme thinness of their walls. As a group, they generally consist of small table vessels - cups, bowl and small jugs - that were produced in great numbers, particularly in the western Mediterranean. Italian production is in full swing by the late Republican period and Italian vessels are widey exported, including to Ilion into the first century AD. Thin-wall production becomes more distributed by the later first century AD and regional Aegean products - perhaps from workshops at Ainos - become very common. The following catalog consists of Italian and directly imitative early vessels. The very common later cups are listed separately in the section "Thin-Walled Cups/Jugs of the Roman Period". There is an extensive literature on early Thin-walled wares. The volumes by Mayet () and Marabini-Moevs (), describing finds from Iberia and from Cosa in Italy, provide useful typologies.
Early Roman Thin-walled Wares
Thin-Walled Cups/Jugs of the Roman Period
From the mid-first and into the third centuries, one handled cups are extremely common at Ilion. While these may originally follow an Italian thin-walled form, they become a very standard part of the Aegean drinking assemblage in the mid-Roman period. Workshops have been identified at Ainos on the northern Aegean coast, with later versions of this production sometimes bearing large written messages or other decorative schemes.
Pompeian-Red Ware
Roman Plain and/or Partially Slipped Vessels
The following catalog lists a small selection of plain and partially slipped vessels, mainly utilitarian in form. It is likely that many such vessels are of local or regional manufacture. The large "Portable Processing Platform" (K/L16/17.0114:5) and "Very Large Mixing Bowl/Mortarium" (K/L16/17.0144:5) are exceptional pieces associated with the second century oven in K/L16/17. Their fabric shares large golden mica flakes so that they may be from the same source, perhaps near Phokaia.
*[((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="r-cook")) or ((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="flanged-casseroles")) or ((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="flanged-casseroles"))]
Roman-Period Cooking Vessels
Roman-period cooking vessels at Ilion, of which only a small selection is presented here, have many parallels with those known in western Asia Minor generally (e.g. ) and with later types published from Didyma (). The catalog begins with Phocaean cookware vessels, which become common in the second half of the first century AD. These are recognized by their relatively pink fabric and golden mica. Their construction is also more careful than that of more regional products, with thinner walls and more sharply formed divisions between rim and wall. Özyiğit (, , ) publishes the evidence for production of these vessels at Phocaea. Three forms of low-dish are common at Ilion in the first through third centuries AD. A "frying pan" pan with flaring walls continues late Hellenistic versions of the same. A single handle is occasionally preserved. A "baking dish" with everted rim is present in 1st through 3rd century deposits. "Flanged-casseroles" with slightly incurved rims appear in a gritty gray fabric that may well be of local or very regional manufacture. This form appears in the late 2nd century at the earlist. Tekkok () and and Kozal () publish additional examples of Roman-period cooking vessels. Within this preliminary typology, the first two forms are well known at Knossos ().
Late Roman Cooking Wares
In the late Roman period, a distinctive series of thickly built cooking pots appears at Ilion. A few examples are listed below.
*[((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="a-archaic")) or ((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="a-classical")) or ((@rel="skos:subject") and (@resource="a-hellenistic"))]
Archaic to Hellenistic Amphoras
Publication of the stratified deposits of Archaic through Hellenistic amphoras by M. Lawall ( and ) has contributed to study of the economic history of the site in these periods. The D09 deposits in the vicinity of the Troia VI city wall provided evidence for the late seventh through late fourth centuries B.C (). Archaic period finds suggest some degree of regional production of agricultural surplus supplemented by only limited participation in Aegean trade networks. The fifth century may have been a period of economic depression. Late fifth and fourth century evidence indicates increasing levels of trade that coincides with the incorporation of the Troad into the Persian empire. Study of the amphoras from stratified deposits associated with Hellenistic houses near the city's defensive circuit indicate a phase of relative prosperity lasting from the late third century through much of the second century B.C. ()
Roman Amphoras
The following catalog lists a small sample of the Roman-period amphoras found at Troia. The separation of Hellenistic from Roman is somewhat arbitrary and begins here with the forms Dressel 1, Dressel 2-4 and Dressel 6. In the references, “Middle Roman” amphoras are classified according to the typology established by Riley () at Benghazi, ancient Berenice. “Late Roman Amphora” indicates use of the overlapping typology developed at Carthage (), itself derived from earlier work at Caesarea (). Of the types defined by Riley, MRA 5 and MRA 7 are relatively common in the late second and third centuries. MRA 5 begins to appear in the late second century. Slane (:364-365) suggests that the introduction of MRA 7 be dated to the early third century. Martin (:429-430) records the form as still in use at Olympia in the late fourth century. There are two main fabrics of this form: one brown with frequent light angular inclusions, the other brick-red with occasional dark rounded stones visible in the fabric and on the surface. A third fabric, so far represented by a single sherd with dark surface, also appears below. Pontic amphoras occur in middle roman deposits at Troia. The one-handled MRA 3, known as "micaceous water jar", likewise occurs regularly. Its two handled successor, LRA 3, is present in later levels. Two "pinched handle" amphoras, one perhaps in Cilician fabric, are described below; as is a single Cretan amphora. In the later series of eastern Mediterranean amphoras, the Cilician/Cypriot LRA 1, Aegean LRA 2, W. Anatolian LRA 3, and Gazan LRA 4 all appear at Ilion. No examples of LRA 5/6 or LRA 7 have been recorded. As is often the case on eastern Mediterranean sites, North African amphoras are very rare, though one piece, a spatheion toe, is published here and a few others have been cataloged.
After a gap of greatly diminished activity, a Byzantine period settlement is in place from the mid-thirteenth century, with evidence of activity extending into the Ottoman period. The latest material that can be associated with settlement on the area of the ancient site dates from 16th century. Hayes () has published vessels from pits inp28.
Byzantine Glazed Wares
Reduced Gritty Cookware
Oxydized Sanded Cookware
Flanged Casseroles (Roman)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'C/D20/21.0434')
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'D20.0235')
Late Roman Clean-up
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'D20.0294')
D20.0294 ("Under Wall?")
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'H17.0053')
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'H17.1165') or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'H17.1175')
H17.1165 and H17.1175 ("Under Ramp")
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'I17.0647') or (sameas[@behalter='I17.0647'])
Late Roman Portico Makeup (I17.0647)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'I17.0734') or (sameas[@behalter='I17.0734'])
Late Roman Oven Use (I17.0734)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0086') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0086'])
2nd AD Oven Use (K/L16/17.0086)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0072') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0072']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0100') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0100']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0860') or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0860']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0881') or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0881']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0937') or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0937'])
Late Severan Dumping
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0072') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0072'])
Late Severan Dump (K/L16/17.0072)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0084') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0084'])
Late Severan Dump (K/L16/17.0084)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0102') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0102']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0104') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0104']) or (h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0106') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0106'])
Late 3rd AD North-South Wall in Severan Complex
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0112') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0112'])
Oven (K/L16/17.0112)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0114') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0114'])
Partial Oven Surface (K/L16/17.0114)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0118') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0118'])
Oven Use (K/L16/17.0118)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0120') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0120'])
Pit K/L16/17.0120
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0132') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0132'])
Oven Use (K/L16/17.0132)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0144') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0144'])
Oven Use (K/L16/17.0144)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0146') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0146'])
Oven Use (K/L16/17.0146)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0148') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0148'])
Oven Use (K/L16/17.0148)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0169' or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0169'])
Robbing Trench of Hellenistic House (K/L16/17.0169)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0398' or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0398'])
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0417') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0417'])
Late Third Century Cleanup (K/L16/17.0417)
Clean-up after collapse of Trajanic Complex, perhaps associated with Herulian disturbance. The combination of a well-preserved ESC/Candarli Hayes form 4, African Red-Slip Hayes form 45, and a painted thin-wall cup dates this assemblage to the late third century. Many of the cataloged sherds can be residual, though they do reflect the types of pottery available at Ilion at the time that this deposit closed. The Middle Roman Amphora 7-type handle is interesting because its highly-micaceous fabric can indicate a south-west Anatolian source related to the workshops producing "Micaceous Water Jars" (MRA/LRA3).
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0419') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0419'])
Late Third Century Cleanup (K/L16/17.0419)
Clean-up after collapse of Trajanic Complex, perhaps associated with Herulian disturbance.
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0427') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0427'])
Leveling Fill of Room 'C' of Early 2nd Century AD House (K/L16/17.0427)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0430') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0430'])
Foundation Trench for Early 2nd Century House (K/L16/17.0430)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0434') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0434'])
Leveling Fill of Room 'C' of Early 2nd Century AD House (K/L16/17.0434)
(h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0456') or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0456'])
Foundation Trench for Early 2nd Century House (K/L16/17.0456)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0461' or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0461'])
South Robbing Trench of Late Flavian House K/L16/17.0461
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0467' or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0467'])
North Robbing Trench of Late Flavian House K/L16/17.0467
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K/L16/17.0474' or (sameas[@behalter='K/L16/17.0474'])
Foundation Trench of Trajanic House
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0068' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0068'])
Late Roman Fill
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0389' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0389'])
Fills Underlying Late-Severan Complex (K17.0389)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0736' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0736'])
Late Roman Fill (K17.0736)
Deposit containing material in use prior to the c. 500 earthquake.
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0752' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0752'])
Late Roman Pit? (K17.0752)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0759' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0759'])
Late Roman Fill (K17.0759)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0777' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0777'])
Late Roman Fill (K17.0777)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0845' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0845'])
Fills Cut by Foundation Trench of Post-Severan Construction
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'K17.0867' or (sameas[@behalter='K17.0867'])
Fills Underlying Late-Severan Complex (K17.0867)
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'M18.0099'
Late Roman Fill (M18.0099)
This fill is associated with the use of a late Roman house occupied during the late fourth and early fifth centuries. The context is overlain by the destruction level that indicates the end of use of this structure. Diagnostic sherds of ARS are relatively numerous in this assemblage, with identifiable forms including H53b, H59, and H71. This range confirms the late fourth through fifth century use of the building. The long-distance imports are accompanied by LRC vessels, among which are an H1b bowl (M18:0099:15) and an early H3 bowl variant (M18.0099:04). Diagnostic late Roman coarse ware forms are also well represented in M18.99. Four flanged casseroles in gritty cookware are illustrated, as are forms of late Roman cookware. As is usual in Lower City deposits, transport amphora are not well represented, though an LRA2 body sherd was recorded.
h:div[@property='tr:behalter'] = 'M18.0435'