Department of ClassicsUniversity of Cincinnati
Department of Classics

UC Classics Will be Well Represented at the Annual AIA/APA Conference in January
The annual Archaeological Institute of America/American Philological Association meeting will have nine speakers from UC Classics. The following papers will be presented:

Natalie Abell
"The Beginning of the Late Bronze Age at Ayia Irini, Kea: A Ceramic Perspective from House B"

During Period VI, the first part of the LBA at Ayia Irini, the population expanded and construction began on several important buildings, including Houses A, B, and F. The influence of Minoan culture -- evident in architectural features of House A, ceramics, and other objects -- is apparent. Yet, the period is not comprehensively defined, and phasing within it is vague. A firm chronology and an analysis of ceramic consumption patterns, of Minoan as well as other imports, is required in order to elucidate the role of Ayia Irini in Aegean exchange patterns.

Defined on the basis of ceramic imports, Period VI begins with the appearance of LM IA and LH I styles, and ends with the arrival of LM IB/LH II pottery. This definition has been expanded only slightly since it first was put forward by Jack L. Caskey in 1972 (Hesperia 41.3, 391-93, fig. 13, pls. 92-3). Analysis of finds from House B, which preserved several well-stratified deposits of Period VI, thus provides a welcome opportunity to re-examine the nature of Period VI assemblages. Since pottery from many different parts of the Aegean – Crete, mainland Greece, Aegina, and other Aegean islands – has been identified at Ayia Irini, new information from House B will encourage and facilitate reinterpretation of ceramic assemblages and sequences at many other sites as well. It will also document more concretely the far-flung exchange networks in which the residents of Ayia Irini participated.

W. Flint Dibble
"Athenian Water Practices in the Urban Environment"

The construction of fountain houses, spring houses, tile-lined wells, and waterproof cisterns provided the Athenian population with substantive water resources. By analyzing, for the first time, the more than 350 published ceramic vessels derived from primary contexts relating to the use of Athenian wells, one can identify new water-management practices in the developing urban environ- ment. This paper combines architectural and ceramic evidence in a chronological synthesis of public and private water-related activity in urban Athens.From ca. 600–250 B.C.E., noticeable changes occurred in the functional charac- teristics of vessels used for the collection of water. A decrease in the capacity and increase in the porosity of water vessels used in the fourth and third centuries B.C.E. suggest that the Athenians no longer transported water over long distances or stored water long term in the city. The diverse assemblage of water vessels used in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C.E. disappeared, and primarily, the mass- produced, coarse-fabric water jug was used for both fetching and serving water. As the number and diversity of water sources increased in the city, the Athenian population’s daily activity adapted.The construction of urban infrastructure—including drains, fountains, and wells—enabled the Peloponnesian War strategy of moving the rural population into the city. The changes in Athenian water practices occurred around this time, and most likely the influx of population acted as a catalyst for the development of a new urban lifestyle in a recently constructed cityscape. 

Steven Ellis
"The Rise and Reorganization of the Pompeian Salted-Fish Industry"

The economic boom that catapulted Pompeii to regional prominence in the mid 2nd century BCE – Pompeii’s veritable ‘Golden Age’ – fundamentally reshaped the city.  Along with the domestic, civic, religious, and infrastructural landscape, Pompeii’s industrial fabric was especially energized by the new opportunities.  This paper charts the development of what began as a veritable cottage-industry at this time, the manufacture of Pompeian salted-fish, to better understand the response of the Pompeian middle-class to the economic changes that swept across the Mediterranean between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE.The evidence for a fish-salting cottage-industry is drawn from the recent discovery by the ‘Pompeii Archaeological Research Project: Porta Stabia (PARP:PS)’ of a series of subterranean fish-salting vats (Lat. cetariae).  All of the vats were built within separate, independent properties close to the Porta Stabia.  Even so, they shared a strikingly similar morphology in terms of their size, construction, and location.  Each vat dates from the 2nd century BCE, making them some of the earliest fish-salteries known in Italy.  All were then destroyed – each independently of the others – in the Augustan period, with their light-industrial spaces replaced by commercial enterprises.  The causes for this abandonment are outlined in light of the Augustan impact on the Mediterranean diet, trade, and economy.  This development did not necessarily represent an end to local production, however, but instead served as a catalyst for more competitive and larger operations that probably relocated outside of the city under ‘Spanish style’ fish-salting consortia such as the gens Umbricia. 

Steven also has a co-written paper with Eric Poehler: 
"The Pompeii Quadriporticus Project: Methods and Results from the First Season" 

Kathryn Gutzwiller
"New Menander Mosaics and the Papyri"

Although Menander was one of the most popular authors in antiquity, his plays are known primarily through papyrological discoveries as supplemented by the visual record. Among the most important illustrations of Menandrian plays are two signed mosaics from Pompeii (2nd c. BC) and a series of mosaic panels in Mytilene (3rd/4th c. AD). Based on similarities between images, scholars now posit that illustrations of Menander’s comedies descend from a series of paintings produced in the early Hellenistic period.

This paper will present four Menander mosaics dating to the third century AD which were recently uncovered in the vicinity of ancient Antioch. Like the Mytilene mosaics, the four scenes bear the name of the play and the number of the act, though not the names of the characters. Three of the four panels present plays also found in other illustrations, and so contribute to our understanding of how the original visual models were adapted over the centuries. Three of the mosaics represent lost plays, two with Plautine adaptations, and the fourth illustrates a lost portion of a substantially extant play. All four add significantly to knowledge of Menander from papyri, and some enhance understanding of Roman versions of the comedies.

The first act of the Synaristosai (“Women at Lunch,” adapted as Plautus’ Cistellaria) appears in the largest panel. While known from other mosaics, the new representation offers an expanded scene involving six figures rather than four, and raises questions about the extent to which Menander’s plot was changed by Plautus.  The crucial opening scene of the Perikeiromene, missing from the text of the play as known from papyri, appears in another new mosaic.  The figures, which closely match a faded wall painting from Ephesus, illustrate the action at the opening of the play and suggest what happened off-stage during the postponed prologue. A third panel presents the first act of Menander’s Philadelphoi (perhaps the same as Adelphoi α), previously known only by title and a few fragments.There are no other recognized visual illustrations of this play, which can now be identified as the model for Plautus’ Stichus. A lengthy papyrus fragment spoken by a young woman to her father, previously unassigned, almost certainly comes from the Philadelphoi. Illustrations of the second act of the Theophoroumene, a comedy surviving only in a few fragments, occur in several mosaics and paintings and in Hellenistic terracotta figurines.  The third act is illustrated in the new Antioch mosaic, where the action of the second act continues with the appearance on-stage of the title character, the “Girl Possessed,” who emerges from her house to dance before the young man who loves her.  This discovery apparently proves that illustrations of Menander were not all based on a single prototype depicting one opening or key scene, or even a single act.

Lynne Kvapil
"Untangling Mycenaean Terracing: Landscape Modification and Agricultural Production at Korphos-Kalamianos"

This paper presents new data from a study of agricultural terraces conducted jointly with the Saronic Harbors Archaeological Research Project (SHARP). The project tested a noninvasive method of documenting terraces in the Korphos region. The results indicate that early terraces were contemporary with the devel- opment of the Mycenaean harbor site of Kalamianos, thus emphasizing its impor- tance as a center of agricultural production during the Late Bronze Age.Severe erosion associated with the adoption of the ard plow is thought by some to have abated as a result of the construction of agricultural terraces by the Myce- naeans. But, because terraces are not explicitly referenced in ancient literature, their use in antiquity has been questioned. Prehistoric terraces have since been identified through careful excavation; however, the innovative methods discussed here are tailored for regional surface surveys. Through the documentation of strati- graphically related walls and construction techniques, distinct terracing phases can be identified and linked to periods of land use established by survey data.

Evidence for Mycenaean-era terraces was discovered both at Kalamianos and in the surrounding hinterland. The integration of terraces into the city plan and their proximity to other agricultural installations, such as a threshing floor, suggest that both subsistence and specialized farming took place in and around the urban site. Moreover, the construction of monumental terraces in Cyclopean-style masonry implies palatial involvement and, thus, raises pertinent questions about the role of Mycenaean palaces in agricultural production at secondary centers. 

Shannon LaFayette
"Squatters in the Palace of Nestor? Additional Evidence for Post-Destruction Activity"

In this paper I present new evidence from Carl Blegen’s excavation archives to support post-Bronze Age activity within a suite of rooms in the Palace of Nestor. The original publication of the Palace of Nestor presented a catastrophic collapse in LH IIIB, after which the palace hilltop lay in ruin, abandoned and overgrown, before it was reoccupied in the 7th century B.C. In the past two decades, however, an earlier Iron Age date for reoccupation of the hilltop has become well-attested, but the debate regarding the extent and nature of this reoccupation continues.

My detailed analysis of the stratigraphic records reveals that architectural debris from the second floor was distributed vertically throughout the palace deposits, indicating that parts of the palace’s second floor remained standing for some time following the LH IIIB fire. I have identified a suite of rooms, Rooms 38-41, east of the Megaron with post-Bronze Age deposits indicative of temporary occupation by squatters. The deposits in Rooms 38-41 lie below a black stratum, which is already associated with Iron Age activity on the site by some scholars. I propose a refined chronology for the deposits, which reveal at least two phases of reuse. In the first phase, possibly in the 9th century B.C., Rooms 38-41 of the Main Building had not yet collapsed and were exploited for small-scale, domestic activity. By the later, second phase, the ceilings had collapsed and activity was restricted to areas above the ruins and around the exterior of the palace. 

Kathleen Lynch
"The Missing Kylix?: Sympotic Cups through Time"

We think of the kylix as the quintessential sympotic cup. The ceramic form develops at the beginning of the 6th century B.C. and rises in popularity with the symposium in the Late Archaic period.  However, by ca. 400, the stemless cup, both plain black and red-figure, becomes the most common form of sympotic cup.  But not for long. The Classical kantharos surpasses the stemless by the mid-4th century.  Data from the Athenian Agora excavations are used to characterize the diminishing importance of the ceramic kylix, and we must re-envision the participants in Plato’s sympotic dialogues using stemlesses, perhaps even kantharoi, but not kylikes.

The shift from kylix to stemless cup to kantharos may be simply one of fashion. The kylix’s long history may have rendered it “old fashion” at the end of the 5th century when pottery styles were increasingly adopting metallic characteristics. Agora evidence also documents the popularity of stemlesses in public dining assemblages.  The delicate stems of kylixes may have proved too fragile for frequent public use, while the wide exposure to public dining in the second half of the 5th century may have affected private trends. Changes in pottery styles seldom directly reflect historical change; however, they can be affected by social change associated with historical events. Shifts in fashion can occur rapidly at times when consumers are searching for stability. That the two new cups—the stemless and the kantharos--closely emulate metallic forms suggests a trend toward pseudo-luxury that may also be an escape from stressful and strained daily lives.

Peter Stone
"Ptolemaic Patronage and Trade in the Southern Levant"

Literary evidence and their own archives indicate that the Ptolemies maximized their revenues by taxing the transshipment of goods and controlling the production and exchange of valuable commodities within their realm.   To date, we have little direct evidence for the impact that these policies had on local economies, much less on peoples’ day-to-day lives.  The ceramic record of the southern Levant in the 3rd century BCE demonstrates that Ptolemaic economic policies did have a profound impact on local market routes.  Cities on the coast, such as Dor and Akko-Ptolemais, regularly received Mediterranean ceramic imports. Likewise, the inland sites of Beth Shean-Scythopolis and Beth Yerah-Philoteira, cities founded by Ptolemy II near the junction of the Jezreel Valley running inland from the coast and the Jordan Valley running north from the Red Sea were well supplied with Mediterranean imports.  These sites were located in an ideal position to ship date palms of the Jordan Valley and incense from Arabia to Egypt via Akko-Ptolemais, another Ptolemaic foundation.  By contrast, inland sites that were not along strategic routes and not the beneficiaries of Ptolemaic patronage (e.g., Tel Kedesh, Shechem, Gezer) were reliant on one or two local suppliers for their pottery.  It seems that merchants peddling goods from the coast only frequented sites along the trade corridor between Akko-Ptolemais and the Ptolemaic foundations at the other end of the Jezreel Valley.  Such limited circulation of goods suggests that economic opportunity within the Ptolemaic empire was closely linked with state priorities. 

Katie Swinford
Workshop: The Publishing Process for Beginners: Start to Finish

Sponsored by the Student Affairs Interest Group and the Committee for Archaeology in Higher Education

MODERATORS: Alexander Meyer, Duke University, Elizabeth Thill, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Katherine M. Swinford, University of Cincinnati

Publishing one’s first article, not to mention one’s first book, is a daunting pros- pect. To the uninitiated, the publication process—from initial submission through revision and finalization—seems to hold untold mysteries and potential pitfalls. New scholars preparing to publish their work receive a wealth of good advice and wise guidance from advisors, mentors, and colleagues. However, few have the opportunity to learn about publication from the perspective of periodical and press editors.

This workshop assembles representatives of various journals and presses, as well as experienced scholars, to illuminate the publication process and demystify its elements.This session covers both periodical and book publishing. Although these two media have much in common, it is necessary to recognize and address the differences between the two. With this in mind, we discuss how scholars ought to choose the publications or presses to which they submit their work. We also address how to make contact with potential publishers and the form in which work ought to be submitted. This will naturally progress into discussion of the review and editing process.

This workshop will illuminate both the consistencies and divergences among publishers in order to prepare the workshop’s attendees for the wide variety of experiences they may have while trying to get their work published.PANELISTS: Tracey Cullen, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Sheila Dillon, Duke University, Madeleine Donachie, American Journal of Archaeology, Vanessa Lord, American Journal of Archaeology, J. Theodore Peña, University of California Berkeley, and Beatrice Rehl, Cambridge University Press