Greek, Roman and Byzantine Pottery at Ilion (Troia):
Sebastian Heath and Billur Tekkök, Editors
Eastern Sigillata C (Çandarli)
Please note that this is a public draft of work in progress
The terms "Eastern Sigillata C" (ESC) and "Çandarli" are meant to refer broadly to Roman period production of red-slipped table wares in and near to both Bergama, ancient Pergamum, and Candarli, ancient Pitane. Both "ESC," coined by Kenyon as a result of her work at Samaria (), and "Candarli," first used by Loeschke following his work at the site (), should therefore be considered generic terms when used below. Starting with late first century BC forms, ESC is recognizable as a separate production influenced by traditions established in the Hellenistic workshops of Pergamum. By the late first-century AD, ESC plates and bowls, such as Loeschke Forms 1, 9, 15, and 20, are common at Ilion. These vessels frequently have a relatively orange slip, which is a feature of early products from ESC workshops. In the second century, the flanged bowl Loeschke form 19 is the dominant ceramic table vessel in use by the households of the city. It is, however, found in conjunction with the larger bowl Loeschke form 26. The two bowl forms develop into Hayes forms 3 and 2 respectively. The large bowls Hayes form 1, along with variants, also occur. The same range of variants is found at Argos (:pl. 29). By the third century, Hayes form 4 dishes are also very common. The end of ESC production is not well documented, though fourth century deposits continue to have large amounts of ESC that may not all be residual, particularly the Hayes form 4 dishes. Eventually, ESC is replaced by Phocaean Red-Slip (PRS), which is the dominant late Roman table ware.
1. Çandarli Loeschke Form 1 Plate Rim (AD 1-100)
D09.0185:1. SC11-1a. Single rim sherd.
p. 75, pl. XVI.16.
2. Çandarli Loeschke Form 1 Plate Rim (AD 1-100)
P. H. .036. Est. diam. rim .25 (<1/20 preserved). Th. .01.
K/L16/17.0434:1. Single sherd, with high rim and floor. Compact light red (2.5YR 6/6) fabric with infrequent tiny light. The surface slip is fired orange (near 2.5YR 5/8) and smoothed, though unevenly applied.
p. 75 and pl. XVI.16.
3. Çandarli Loeschke Form 6 Profile (Late first to Second AD)
H. .024. Est. diam. rim .10 (1/10 preserved). Th. .005.
K/L16/17.0120:1. Compact light red fabric (2.5YR 6/6) with very few inclusions, occasional tiny micaceous flakes in direct sunlight. Thick well-smoothed orange (near 2.5YR 5/8) slip on interior, thin to almost plain on exterior.
p. 75 and pl. XVII.1.
4. Çandarli Loeschke Form 6 Profile (Late first to Second AD)
H. .023. Est. diam. rim .12 (1/10 preserved). Th. .001.
K/L16/17.0427:6. Fine light red (2.5YR 6/8) fabric with occasional tiny white inclusions. Darker slip (towards 2.5YR 5/8) is relatively orange for ware, extant on all surfaces, including underside of foot, thicker and smoothed on interior. Exterior shows narrow smoothing bands on curved wall and scratches closer to the base. Interior has two sets of concentric incised grooves on floor.
p. 75 and pl. XVII.1.
5. Çandarli Loeschke Form 6 Rim (Late first to Second AD)
H. .021. Est. diam. rim .14 (1/8 preserved). Th. .004.
K/L16/17.0427:4. Single rim sherd. Fine light red (2.5YR 6/8) fabric with occasional tiny white inclusions. Darker slip (towards 2.5YR 5/8), thicker and smoothed on interior, brushed on exterior with subtle smoothing bands.
6. Çandarli Loeschke Form 9 Rim (First to Second AD)
H. .021. Est. diam. rim .11 (1/5 preserved). Th. .006.
I17.0647:9. Single sherd to floor. Fine light red (10R 6/8) fabric with tiny light inclusions, no mica. Surface is dark red (10R 5/8), thick slip is variably applied. Interior and exterior have alternating spiraling bands of smoothed and unsmoothed slip.
p. 76 and fig. XVII.2.
7. Çandarli Loeschke Form 15 Rim (AD 50 to 100)
H. .032. Est. diam. rim .09 (1/10 preserved). Th. .0039.
K/L16/17.0461:5. Single sherd. Compact light red fabric (2.5YR 6/8) with no visible inclusions, bright orange slip (near 2.5YR 5/8) thickly applied on interior surface, thinner under flange and on exterior.
8. Eastern Sigillata C Bowl with Recurved Handle (Late 1st BC to early 1st AD)
K/L16/17.0398:1. P.H. .036, est. D. rim .20 (<1/10 preserved), Th. .003. Single rim and handle sherd. Fine pale brown (near 2.5YR 6/6) fabric with infrequent reddish inclusions and occasional tiny voids. The thick red (10R 5/8) slip is very smooth, though some brush marks are still visible, on the interior face of the rim. On the exterior the slip is equally thick but duller and brush are preserved around the handle attachments.
See no. 163 for comparanda and date.
9. Çandarli Chalice or Modiolus
K/L16/17.0398:2. P.H. .054, est. D. rim .19 (<1/6 preserved), Th. wall min. .003. Single rim sherd. The light reddish-brown (near 2.5YR 6/6) fabric has only occasional small light inclusions. The slip is dark red (nearest 10R 4/6). It is thick and smoothed on the exterior, but thinner with brush marks on the interior. This form is not illustrated in Hayes 1986 but he does mention a Candarli modiolus on p. 74 where he sites J. Schafer (1968), p. 69-70. Italian “modioli” are 1st century. Apart from the relative fineness of the fabric, there is little to distinguish this sherd from the mainstream 2nd into 3rd century products.
10. Çandarli Loeschke Form 15 Rim (AD 50 to 100)
H. .0356. Est. diam. rim .08 (<1/20 preserved). Th. .0051.
K17.0860:36. Single rim sherd. Somewhat brown (nearest 5YR 6/6) fabric, small golden mica. No other inclusions visible except under 10x when a few tiny lighter bits appear. Slip is red (near 2.5YR 4/8), thick and smooth on all surfaces. Brush marks are very clear on interior of rim. Tooled smoothing bands on wall. Exterior is relatively smooth, no scratches on wall.
11. Inscribed Candarli or related bowl, Cf. Loeschke Form 19 (AD 75 - 150)
P. H. .037. Est. diam. rim not recoverable. Th. .0037.
Single sherd, rim and flange. Pale reddish (5yr 8/4) fabric with orange/red slip on all surfaces; inner surfaces well-smoothed, outer shows smoothing marks. Outer rim is inscribed 'ϲυντυχ[' in upside down letters. This may be the Greek female name Συντύχη, known from Paul Philippians 4.2
and appearing in an inscription from Phrygian Traianopolis (CIG 3865k
) dated to AD 203/4 ('σπη' = 288 of the Sullan Era). Overall, the name is well-known, with the online version
of the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names indicating 40 attestations. The ware of this piece is close to early variants of ESC, though this vessel may be from a source not well represented at Ilion so that it is best to allow for a broad chronology.
12. Çandarli Loeschke Form 19 Profile (75 to 150)
P. H. .058. Est. diam. rim .116 (<1/10 preserved). Th. .005.
K/L16/17.0146:8. Pale red (10R 6/6) fabric with rare tiny dark inclusions and infrequent voids. The dark red slip (near 10R 4/8) is thin with metallic sheen. The interior and outer face of the rim are well smoothed. The exterior is rougher and parts of the outer face of the base are plain where the slip did not drip down completely; underside of the base is only partially slipped. There is a large surface void on the underside of the base.
13. Çandarli Loeschke Form 19 Flanged Bowl Profile (75 to 150 AD)
M18.0073:1. SC11-2q. Single sherd preserving profile. Patches of thin slip on exterior.
p. 76, pl. XVII.4-6.
14. Çandarli Loeschke Form 19 Flanged Bowl Profile (75 to 150)
K17.0071:20. SC11-1t. Single sherd preserving profile. Fugitive slip on outer face of rim. Patches on ring foot are reserved. Large surface voids on exterior.
p. 76, pl. XVII.4-6.
15. Çandarli Loeschke Form 19 Flanged Bowl Rim (75 to 150)
H. .051. Est. diam. rim .11 (1/3 preserved). Th. .0046.
K17.0860:33. Two joining sherds, profile. Light red (10R 6/8) fabric with mostly frequent lime but also darker bits and frequent very small voids. Mica on surface. Slip is red (10R 5/8), slightly smoother and thicker on interior.
16. Çandarli Loeschke 19 Flanged Bowl Profile (2nd Century AD)
Est. diam. rim .12. Est. diam. base .055.
I17.0893. P0241. Nearly complete small bowl. Compact orange fabric.
17. Çandarli Hayes Form 3 Flanged Bowl Rim (Third Century AD)
H. .052. Est. diam. rim .12 (1/5 preserved). Th. .0039.
K17.0860:54. Single sherd, profile. Light red (2.5YR 6/6) fabric with tiny lime and other varied tiny inclusions. Occasional very small voids. Occasional gold mica. Dark red (10 4/6 where thickest) red slip, which is smooth and slightly glossy on interior. The exterior slip is mostly thinner but there is a patch where it is very thick and dark, particularly under the flange. There is a very fine line incised on the interior.
18. Çandarli Loeschke 19/Hayes Form 3 Flanged Bowl (2nd/3rd Century AD)
I17.0893. P0241. Lower part of small bowl.
19. Çandarli Hayes Form 3 Rim (late 2nd to 3rd century)
P. H. .035. Est. diam. rim .12 (<1/20 preserved). Th. .003.
K/L16/17.0398:18. Single rim sherd. Pale red (2.5YR 7/6) fabric with only tiny light inclusions and frequent small voids. The red (10R 5/8) slip is most thickly applied to the interior surface and outer rim above the flange, smoothed in bands. Below the flange the slip is thinner and only partially smoothed. Tooling under rim.
20. Çandarli Hayes Form 3 Rim (late 2nd to 3rd century)
P. H. .026. Th. .004.
K17.0845:9. Single rim sherd, diameter not recoverable. Light red fabric (2.5YR 6/8) with small light and other dark inclusions, small voids. Pronounced outer edge of flange. The red (between 10R 4/8 and 5/8) slip is equally applied on all extant surfaces.
21. Çandarli Loeschke Form 20 Rim (First to Second AD)
P. H. .0331. Est. diam. rim .12 (<1/10 preserved). Th. .0036.
K/L16/17.0461:4. Single rim sherd. Compact light red fabric (5YR 7/6) with lustrous orange slip (near 2.5YR 5/8) thickly applied on all surfaces, exterior scratched.
22. Çandarli Loeschke Form 25 Rim (1st Century AD)
P. H. .034. Th. .006.
I17.0844:2. SC11-1c. Single rim sherd. Thick slip on all surfaces.
, no. 985.
23. Candarli Loeschke Form 26a Bowl (50-100)
H. .05. Est. diam. rim .23 (1/4 preserved). Est. diam. base .10 (1/2 preserved). Th. .0049.
K17.0937:1. SC11-2ee. Two joining sherds, complete profile. Light red (2.5YR 6/8) fabric with rare tiny white inclusions, frequent mica. Large lime chunks, .002 in diameter, are visible in breaks and on surface (perhaps from post-depositional spalling?). Elongated voids, particularly near foot. Thick red (10R 5/8) slip on interior is smoothed, exterior matte and thinner. Conserved. Lightly incised groove around center of floor, very light groove on lowest wall.
24. Candarli Loeschke Form 26 Type Base
x07.0187:1. Incised palm leaf partially preserved on floor.
25. Çandarli Hayes Form 2 Profile (Second to Third Century)
P. H. .053. Est. diam. rim .22 (1/8 preserved). Th. .006.
K17.0688:2. P0538. Three joining sherds preserving profile; sherds have been conserved. Compact red (10R 7/8) fabric with occasional light bits, mica visible on surface. Darker red (10R 5/8) slip; interior smoothed, exterior shows light brush lines. Two grafiti on exterior: "double-axe" in hollow base and palm frond on wall.
26. Çandarli Hayes Form 2 (Bowl) Profile (Second to Third Century AD)
H. .054. Est. diam. rim .25 (1/7 preserved). Th. .0045.
K17.0177:1. SC11-2e. Single sherd preserving profile. Compact red (2.YR 6/6) fabric, darker red (2.5YR 5/8) slip on all surfaces. Interior slip is smoothed, exterior less so. Incised groove under rim. Spacer mark on interior floor and on exterior at lower carination. Excess clay on lower exterior wall.
p. 78, pl. XVIII.2.
27. Çandarli Form Loeschke 27 Rim (AD 50-150)
P. H. .045. Est. diam. rim .20 (<1/20 preserved). Th. .008.
K17.0696:5. Single rim sherd. Light red (2.5YR 6/6) fabric with only occasional elongated light inclusions. Red (2.5YR 5/8) slip on all surfaces, smoothed on interior, brushed on exterior.
Cf. nos. 975 and 976.
28. Çandarli Form Loeschke 41 Rim (2nd Century AD)
P. H. .039. Est. diam. rim .20 (<1/10 preserved). Th. .007.
K/L16/17.0427:3. Single rim sherd. Light red (2.5YR 7/6) with angular white and darker inclusions. Thin red (2.5YR 5/7) slip on all surfaces. Thickened, slightly inturned rim.
Cf. nos. 566-576. See also TS015, identified as a Loeschke 42. An ESC version of ESB Hayes 76.
29. Çandarli Hayes Form 1 Base (2nd - 3rd Century)
P. H. .128. Est. diam. base .0958 (1/2 preserved).
K17.0860:26. Single base sherd. Pale pink (near 5YR 7/4) fabric with tiny varied, mostly light bits and occasional small reddish inclusions. Small voids, some elongated and up to .004 in length. Red (10R 4/8) slip is smoothed on interior with bands visible; thinner, matte on exterior with a few, short patches almost plain. Distinct groove between heavy foot and wall. Two spacer impressions on interior floor, both .0142 in diameter.
30. Çandarli Hayes Form 1 (Cf. Knossos 6) Base (2nd - 3rd Century)
P. H. .078. Est. diam. base .0966 (completely preserved). Th. .0059.
K17.0860:28. Two joining base sherds. Pale red (5YR 7/4) fabric with elongated and sub-rounded light, mostly calcareous, inclusions. Frequent very small irregular and elongated voids. Chip taken near base. Surface is darker red (10R 4/6). Thick and smoothed on interior. Exterior is thinner and is well smoothed only in wide bands. There is a floral stamp at the center of the floor but the design is not restorable. There is a single concentric circle around this central stamp. Two closely spaced incised lines on exterior. Two impressions of circular spacers are extant. One is .0125 in diameter, the other is .0142. The smaller has two chunks of the spacer adhering in the impression. The fabric of the spacer fragment is basically normal Candarli red (near 2.5YR 5/6, but small and hard to read). [N.B. the spacer may well have been fired many times so its is not necessarily indicative of much.] The slip and interior incised concentric groove go under the larger space remnant. This suggests that the bowl was brought to a “leather hard” stage when groove was “cut” and slip was applied. Then the piece was stacked in a kiln with spacers between the pieces. There is also a single spacer outline on the bottom of the ring foot. The diameter of this is not recoverable but may be near .0125. All the slip has worn off the bottom of the ring foot.
31. Çandarli Hayes Form 4 Rim (200-300)
H. .034. Est. diam. rim .20 (1/12 preserved). Th. .005.
K/L16/17.0100:18. Single rim sherd. Compact red (2.5YR 5/6) fabric, no inclusions, occasional elongated voids; darker (10R 5/6) red slip on all surfaces.
p. 78, pl. XVIII.4.
32. Çandarli Hayes Form 4 Profile (200-300)
H. .033. Est. diam. rim .17 (1/2 preserved). Th. .002.
K/L16/17.0417.103. P0656. Five joining fragments preserving complete profile. Fine red (2.5YR 7/6) fabric with occasional small white inclusions and more common small voids. All surfaces carry a dark red (between 10R 5/8 and 4/8) slip. The interior is smoothed though visibly thinner in places and the same treatment is applied to the rim above the carination. Below that the slip is more often thinner and less smooth. The body of the vessel here shows both scratches as well as irregular radial ridges – “turning mards” - that may be intentional but may also be the result of a too lightly applied smoothing instrument. There is a light smoothing spiral near the center of the floor on the interior.
p. 78, pl. XVIII.4.
33. Çandarli Hayes Form 4 Rim (200-300)
H. .034. Est. diam. rim .28 (1/12 preserved). Th. .006.
K/L16/17.0398:16. Single rim sherd. The light red (2.5YR 6/6) fabric has frequent angular and elongated lime/white inclusions with frequent elongated voids. Occasional golden mica, including some flattened on surface. The interior slip is the normal dark red (near 10R 4/6) but the exterior is overfired above the slight carination that introduces the rim. A patch just under the rim is pale pink (2.5YR 8/2) with the rest being darker than normal (10R 4/4). This section carries a slight metallic sheen in comparison to the lower part. The lighter/normal red section below the carination was protected from this overfiring by being in a stack. The interior of the rim shows relatively broad stick smoothing bands. The exterior is smoother in parts but has unsmoothed strips between broader smoothed bands. There are also three long horizontal scratches on the exterior whereas none are present on the interior.
p. 78, pl. XVIII.4.
34. Çandarli Hayes Form 5 Profile (3rd Century)
H. .034. Est. diam. rim .126. Est. diam. base .06. Th. .006.
w28.0245.101. P0628. Nine mendable fragments, conserved. Bright matt red/orange slip (between 2.YR 5/6 and 5/8) and red fabric (between 2.5YR 5/6 and 6/6) with traces of surface mica. Deep smoothing marks on exterior.
First published as no. 143, with photograph on pl. 22.
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Coldstream, John, L. Eiring
and G. Forster. 2001.
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Hayes, John. 1985.
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Malamidou, Vaitsa. 2005.
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British Archaeological Reports International Series 1386. Oxford.
Zelle, Michael. 1997.
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Asia Minor Studien 27. Bonn.
Related Resources for Catalog
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