Pylos Regional Archaeological Project

THE PYLOS REGIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT: 14th Season Preliminary Report to the 7th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Olympia, on the Results of Museum Study, September 2003-October 2004


1. Skeletal Biology

Lynne A. Schepartz, University of Cincinnati

Sari Miller-Antonio, California State University, Stanislaus

During 2004 progress was made on the re-study of the human skeletal materials from the Blegen excavations at Pylos in the following areas:

  1. Analysis and presentation of results at the 15th European Meeting of the Paleopathology Association held in Durham, England from August 10-15. Schepartz and Miller-Antonio were invited to participate in the organized session “Studies of Bioarchaeology in Greece”. (Abstract below)
  2. Planned inclusion in an edited volume. Schepartz entered into an agreement to co-edit a volume on skeletal biology of ancient Greece with Sherry Fox and Chryssi Bourbou. Schepartz and Miller-Antonio will contribute a synthetic paper on the skeletal biology of the Pylian populations. The volume will be submitted to the American School of Classical Studies in Athens for publication.
  3. Analysis and presentation of results at the 106th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America to be held January 5-9, 2005. A paper on the “The Later Mycenaeans of Pylos” by Schepartz and Miller-Antonio was accepted and scheduled in a session on Mycenaean Greece. (Abstract below)

Two new research activities that will place the Pylos studies in broader comparative perspective are planned for 2005. Schepartz and Miller-Antonio will collaborate with Anastasia Papathanasiou, a specialist in bioarchaeological stable isotope analyses, attached to the Ephoreia of Speleology. We are proposing to sample and analysis the Pylos skeletons, and to initiate a comparative study of Mycenaean health and malnutrition. The results from Pylos will be combined with Papathanasiou’s research on samples from Sykia, Kalamaki and Spaliareika. Second, Schepartz and Miller-Antonio plan to begin study of the Mycenaean burials from the Athenian Agora.

1.1. Abstract for the 2004 Paleopathology Association Meeting, Durham (UK)

For inclusion in the session “Bioarchaeology in Greece: Current Aspects and Future Perspectives” organized by Chryssi Bourbou

Temporal Perspectives on the Mycenaeans of Pylos: The Palace of Nestor Grave Circle Burials and Neighboring Tombs

Lynne A. Schepartz, University of Cincinnati

Sari Miller-Antonio, California State University Stanislaus

Keywords: Pylos, Greece; Palace of Nestor; Mycenaean; Bronze Age; dental pathology; paleodemography

Mycenaean burials near the Palace of Nestor were excavated by Blegen and colleagues between 1939-1966. They span the pre-palatial and palatial periods, making a diachronic perspective on the health and burial practices of the population possible. The earliest graves, from the ‘so-called’ Grave Circle, date to the end of the Middle and beginning of the Late Bronze Age prior to construction of the Palace. These individuals (N=31), found with prestigious grave goods, probably represent the founding elites of Pylos. The later Pylian Mycenaean population (N=83), from the 14th-13th Centuries BC, is represented by multiple and secondary burials from the Tsakalis, Kondou, and Kokkevis tomb groups.

Few Pylians lived beyond age 35, and there is limited evidence of osteoarthritis or other age-related pathologies. Some individuals display diplöe expansion and marked limb shaft cortical thickening that may have a genetic or stress-response basis. When dental pathology (caries, premortem tooth loss, hypoplasia) is assessed, the Grave Circle individuals differ from the later burials. The overall frequency of dental pathology is greater in the later burials. Females have the highest rates of dental decay and tooth loss--potentially linked to gender specific dietary stresses or the depletion of resources during reproduction.

1.2. Abstract for the 2005 Archaeological Institute of America Meeting in Boston, MA

The Later Mycenaeans of Pylos: Skeletal Biology of the Tsakalis, Kondou and Kokkevis Tomb Populations

Lynne A. Schepartz, University of Cincinnati

Sari Miller-Antonio, California State University Stanislaus

Mycenaean tombs in the vicinity of the Palace of Nestor were excavated by Blegen and his colleagues between 1939 and 1966. The later Mycenaean population (N=83), dating from the 14th-13th Centuries BC, is represented by primary and secondary burials from the Tsakalis, Kondou, and Kokkevis tombs. Aside from brief references in Blegen et al., The Palace of Nestor III (1973), these burials are unpublished.

The importance of the later skeletal sample stems from the direct perspective on the changing lives of Pylians that it provides through comparison between these remains and those from the earlier so-called Grave Circle (N=31). While few Pylians, at any time, appear to have lived beyond age 35, a number of indicators associated with mild infectious disease or slight functional impairment during childhood and early adult life suggest that health was worse for those buried in the later tombs. The differences between the earlier and later burials seem most marked when dentition (caries, premortem tooth loss, hypoplasia) is assessed. The overall frequency of dental pathologies is greater in the later burials, and females have the highest rates of tooth decay and loss-- possibly linked to gender specific dietary stresses or the depletion of nutritional resources during reproduction. Such differences in skeletal biology must be interpreted from the perspective of archaeological evidence for changes in resource base and potential variation in status between the individuals interred in the Grave Circle and those buried in the later tombs.

2. Restoration and Re-study of the Mycenaean Wall Paintings

Hariclia Brecoulaki (University of Sorbonne, Paris I)

Conservation and study of frescoes from the Palace of Nestor continued in two sessions, one from May 11th- June 7th, the other from August 3rd– September 13th.

The team consisted of the following members:

In addition to the preceding individuals, scientific non-destructive analyses were performed in situ by the following members of the team:

The work accomplished this year can be described under several headings.

2.1. Organization and Inventory of Fresco Fragments

Significant progress was achieved this year towards the definitive organization of the wall paintings and their permanent storage. Every single fragment of the wall painting corpus of the palace is now properly stored in newly built drawers that are numbered from 1 to 208. The organization of the material in the drawers is based on their context, with reference to revised room numbers as they appear in Blegen’s final publication. For example, fragments belonging to room 1 are grouped together in drawers from 1 to 7, followed by fragments found between rooms 1 and 2 (see the table attached to this report, where there is a list of drawers).

Although this system of storage required more time because we had to retrieve the maximum amount of information about each fragment in order to identify correctly its provenance correctly, it has proven to be a great help in the re-study of the material and in the relocation of particular fragments. One of the hardest parts of the procedure, however, consisted of the accurate evaluation and cross-checking of information written on Blegen's original wooden tags that accompanied most of the fragments, notes written on paper by M. Lang, and notes from the diaries of various excavators. Very often only the number of the trench was recorded, and not the room in which the trench was situated. Lang sometimes also included in parentheses room numbers assigned at the time of excavation, while in other cases parentheses were used for the new room numbers assigned in the final publication. In addition, many of Lang’s notes on tags had either faded or were badly damaged by insects. Glaubius helped to decipher excavation diaries and in doing so significantly clarified many issues.

An inventory number was written on the back of each fragment. This code will serve as a reference for all future researchers, as well as provide links to a database with information about each fragments and illustrations. Individual fragments were previously unnumbered. Inventory numbers are composed of three numbers. The first number of each fragment corresponds to the number of the drawer that contains it and the second is unique to each fragment within the given drawer. The third number indicates the archaeological context of the wall paintings, when sufficient evidence allowed us to define it; in most cases this number corresponds to the room or area from which the fragments were collected.

It is important to stress, however, that on certain occasions we have found joins between fragments that were found in different rooms. For example, a number of fragments collected on the floor of room 20 (old room 4) belong to the pictorial program of room 6 (the Throne room); a fragment found in room 31, stored together with other fragments from room 27, belonged to the same scene as fragments from the ne fresco dump; a tiny fragment from room 27 joined with a large fragment from outside room 32. In such cases we decided to store joining pieces, or pieces belonging to the same iconographical program, together inside the same drawer; the third part of their inventory number preserves information about the area where they were found.

Such information about joining fragments is of great value for the reconstruction of the original location of the wall paintings in the various rooms of the palace and for studying the way in which the walls that supported them collapsed. For example, in last year’s report, two new joins between fragments from room 20 (old 4) and a fragment from the Throne room (19C6) were mentioned. This year, examination of the entire group of fragments collected on the floor of room 20 (southwest of the Throne room), demonstrated that other fragments also seem to belong to the decorative program of the Throne room (6); these presumably had fallen from the upper storey’s southwest wall.

The practical problems related to attaching an inventory number to the back of the fragments were solved by testing the behaviour of various materials with regards to the compatibility between materials used to attach the number and their permanence. We tried different kinds of "supports" on which inventory numbers could be written, some of these natural (white plaster, dental plaster, calcium carbonate), others synthetic (acrylic stucco); we also experimented with various kinds of permanent markers and pencils of variable hardness. We finally decided on the following procedure:

a. A thin layer of synthetic resin Paraloid B72 (in concentration 10% diluted in acetone) was applied in order to create an isolating film between the original mortar of the artefact and the layer of the "support";

b. After the Paraloid B72 film had dried, a layer of dental plaster was applied with a tiny spatula, so as to create a smooth surface on which an inventory number could suitably be written. The decision to use dental plaster was based both on its better mechanical properties and quicker drying time, in comparison to ordinary white plaster, as well as on its easier manipulation, in comparison to acrylic stucco.

c. After the layer of dental plaster had dried, the inventory number was written on it, using a pencil of 2H hardness. Pencil proved to be much more permanent than any other kind of marker available.

d. Finally, another coat of Paraloid B72 (in concentration 5% diluted in acetone) was applied in order to protect the written surface.

All materials used in this operation are reversible and we tried to constrain the dimensions of the plaster "support" to a minimum. Almost all individuals who participated in this year’s project helped restorers to assign numbers. Numbers were assigned to a total of 129 drawers; these contained more than 8000 fragments. The inventorying of individual fragments is proving to be extremely important for the re-study and restoration of the iconography. Fragments can be more quickly rearranged for study, with immediate reference to their excavated context. The search for joins was greatly facilitated, since numerous fragments with different provenances could be studied without fear of losing vital contextual information.

2.2. Photographical Documentation

The systematic digital recording of the wall painting fragments that started last year was continued following the same process: each drawer with all artefacts was photographed in its entirety; subsequently each unique fragment was recorded and labelled with its inventory number. Julie Hruby, with the assistance of Kori Duncan, Jen Glaubius, and Yuki Furuya, photographed 4250 fragments contained in 67 drawers; these images were then stored in a database.

2.3. Restoration Operations

Significant progress was made this year in restoration of the wall paintings, owing to the participation of four restorers: two students (Fardi and Kottoula) and two professionals (Musella and Kapizionis). In addition to the usual treatments that have been employed for most fragments (superficial brushing; consolidation of flaking pictorial layers or powdery mortars using an acrylic emulsion, Primal AC33, diluted in distilled water 3-7%; reinforcing of the pictorial layer’s cohesion using Paraloid B72, a copolymer of acrylates and methacrlylates diluted in acetone 3%), more advanced operations were performed in some instances as described here:

a) The so-called White Goddess, a well known painting preserving most of the head and neck of a life-size female in left profile, recovered from the North West Slope of the palace and published by Lang in 1969 (49a H nws), has been re-restored. This piece, part of a larger composition, is composed of thirty-three joining fragments that were glued together roughly, probably soon after their removal from the ground; the surface had been cleaned preliminarily, removing only partially a layer of saline incrustation.

All fragments were first unglued. Joining surfaces were then properly cleaned (earth was still attached to them) using purified acetone (99%) and distilled water. In a second stage, each single fragment was examined under a stereomicroscope in order to define areas that needed further cleaning and to document the state of preservation of the pictorial layer. The striking blue background of the composition is made of Egyptian blue (as was indicated through XRF analysis performed in situ); the coarse grain of this sandy pigment is often responsible for its pulverisation when applied in thick layers, although its chemical composition makes it one of the most stable pigments in the ancient world. Consequently, the original colour of the pigment remained unaltered chemically, even though superficial incrustations had created an uneven surface with spots of different shades, and its physical properties had been affected by external conditions, causing the powdering of its surface in many areas. The whitish surface of the Goddess’s face, composed of pure calcite, presented a more homogeneous and compact surface, but here, too, saline incrustations had created grey spots that detracted from a full appreciation of the fine execution of the painting.

We decided not to attempt a more intensive cleaning of the blue background, except in restricted areas, because the risk of removing grains of the original pictorial layer was high. We did, however, begin a meticulous cleaning of the face, by removing the saline incrustations. This operation was conducted mostly chemically, using a mixture composed of distilled water and slightly basic salts (ammonium and sodium bicarbonate), reinforced by surfactants applied with an organic gel (carboxymethyl cellulose) in the form of compresses. This mixture acts as a non-polar system disrupting the molecules of the salts so that solution is then possible. We also used a cationic surfactant (Amber SH), applied with carboxymethyl cellulose. The remaining salts were eliminated mechanically at a second stage using sharp scalpels, always under a microscope (a delicate operation conducted by Fardi). After the cleaning was completed, the precise and clean joins of the fragments were again glued together using an acrylic adhesive HMG product (Paraloid B72). On the reverse of the restored piece, a new lime based mortar was used to enhance adherence of the fragments and to fill cavities.

The benefit of this restoration was twofold: on the one hand, old restoration materials (organic glues and consolidants oxidize with ageing) were removed and fragments were glued correctly, thus reducing mechanical tension between the bonds; on the other hand, we had the opportunity to appreciate significant details in the face of the woman that revealed previously hidden aspects of the original pictorial technique.

The faded black lines of the eye and eyebrow are now more visible and it is clear that there were pink highlights on the nose and the cheek of the face, presumably composed of an organic lake, applied in diluted and fine brush strokes. This face has always been considered as white, and Lang in her description (Lang 1969, pp. 83-84) nowhere mentioned the superposition of pink highlights since these were almost entirely veiled by saline incrustations. The artist who created this face was much more concerned with the rendering of plastic effects than was initially thought, breaking with the bi-dimensionality of a uniform white paint.

A preliminary attempt was made to fix the restored fragment on a Plexiglas mat with aluminium attachments, for possible future display on a vertical surface.

b) Modern gesso coatings were removed from the back of two large fragments of fresco that joined (21D46 and 9Fnws). This operation required the use of big scalpels, pincers, and an electric auger, and was performed by the two professional restorers, Musella and Kapizionis. The fragments were liberated from the thick plaster; each was cleaned, and then precise joins glued together. Finally new mortar (composed of two parts of sand and one part of lime) was applied to fill gaps and cavities on the backs of the fragments, in order to reinforce their adherence.

New mortar was applied as well to other fragments with deep cracks, holes on their surface, and/or with badly damaged edges.

2.4. Technical Examination of the Wall Paintings in Situ (X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction, PIXE) and the Results of Laboratory Analyses (Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, FTIR).

Measurements were taken in situ for the characterisation of inorganic materials, pigments, and mortars by means of XRF, XRD and PIXE.

Analyses were performed on wall-painting fragments by means of the portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) equipment of the Institute of Nuclear Physics “DEMOKRITOS”, and the portable XRD and PIXE-ALPHA equipment of Catania University and the Laboratory of Non Destructive Analysis of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Our goal was to identify the chemical composition of mineral and artificial pigments used for the creation of the paintings. 84 "positions" (i.e., points on individual fragments of frescoes) were analysed this year by means of XRF, 26 positions by means of PIXE-ALPHA and 3 by XRD. Major objectives of this year’s analytical program were the application of complementary non-destructive techniques in order to confirm measurements obtained in previous years, and to obtain more quantitative data by estimating, for instance, the presence of elements low in the periodic table, such as Si and Al.

These analyses also allowed us to investigate quantitative variations in the composition of various hues of the same pigment, in the case of Egyptian blue. PIXE-ALPHA measurements taken on 11 fragments of Egyptian blue from different rooms/areas of the palace confirmed that lighter tones of blue contain a lower amount of copper. XRF had in previous years pointed to the presence of Si (silica) on white paint layers, but it was impossible to determine with certainty if this element was contained in the mortar or if it constituted a major element in the pictorial layer. The situation was clarified this year by the complementary use of XRD and PIXE. It is now obvious that silica and aluminium belong to the composition of the mortar (sand); the pictorial layer in most cases proved to be pure calcite.

Analysis of new positions by means of XRF further enriched our data-base, which is now composed of ca. 300 analysed pigments. In general, these confirmed the palette that has been reconstructed in previous years. Differences in the choice of blacks provided further evidence for distinguishing groups of fragments and for associating them with different painters and/or workshops. It is interesting to note at this point that an identical checkerboard pattern attested on two fragments from different contexts was executed by means of two different black pigments, in one case with an organic black and in the other with the mineral black pyrolusite; such differences suggest different workshops were involved and remind us that stylistic affinities may not always constitute a solid criterion for associating fragments from different contexts.

Binding materials and organic dyes were further characterized by means of Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, and FTIR. Already last year there had been stressed the importance and the particular interest of the abundant presence of pinkish hues, ranging from dark purple and violet to pale pink; it was suggested that their origin should be organic, since no other elements belonging to inorganic pigments were detected by XRF analysis. This hypothesis was confirmed this year by analyses performed under the supervision of Colombini at the University of Pisa: organic lakes, both of vegetable and animal origin, had been employed.

In most cases, the particular organic dye could not be identified, either because it had deteriorated and its chemical formula thus was altered, because the composition of the plant used to produce the dye is no longer available today, or because it has not yet been documented. In any case, the pink colour is not derived from the well-known plant Rubia Tinctorum (alizarin red), the most common vegetable source for red dyes in Classical antiquity, and of a colour very close to the hues represented in our fragments.

Of great interest is the detection of murex purple on two samples taken from the northwestern wall of the Throne room; macroscopically these fragments presented the most intense hues. This fact demonstrates that there was a particular interest in the choice of colour employed in the most important room of the palace and suggests that the colour itself may have had symbolic and ritual meanings in addition to aesthetic value; it also enriches our knowledge of the use in the Aegean world of this expensive and rare dye. Dyes with a vegetable provenance were also employed in association with murex purple, but more analyses will be required to determine their precise character. Likewise, we suspect, but are not yet able conclusively to prove, that the use of murex purple was reserved for the Throne Room.

The identification of such fragile and precious materials as those used in the Throne Room of the Palace of Nestor has never been carried out in a systematic manner in the analysis of Aegean frescoes, with the only exception being the recent identification of murex purple on a wall painting from Thera. Consequently, results obtained from the analyses of paint samples shed entirely new light on the technology of Aegean painting.

Our analyses also are relevant to the long-standing debate over the manufacture of Aegean paintings: are they real “frescoes”? The characterisation of the binding materials used in the frescoes from the Palace of Nestor, performed by means of GC/MS, HLPC and FTIR, confirmed in the case of almost all samples, the use of organic binders, and, therefore, that a tempera technique had been employed. Egg and tragacanth gum, derived from the plant astragalus, native in Greece, were the major components used by Mycenaean painters to bind their pigments and to apply their colours. It is interesting to stress here that these materials were also the ones used by Classical painters, together with Arabic gum, as attested by recent analysis of late Classical and early Hellenistic paintings. It is thus clear that techniques used by Mycenaean painters in the LH IIIB period were extremely sophisticated.

2.5. New Joins and New "Discoveries"

The final organisation of the Apotheke 1 of the Hora Museum has facilitated enormously the study of the frescoes and their restoration. In addition, the use of a stereomicroscope, loaned to us by the director of the Wiener Laboratory of the ASCSA, has helped us to retrieve otherwise macroscopically invisible motifs, and to reconstruct in many cases the original polychromy of scantily preserved fragments. The most interesting information revealed from this year’s study may be summarized as follow:

The most interesting “discovery” of this year consisted of a group of unpublished fragments that presumably depict a naval theme: ship patterns, oars, and perhaps fish were recognized. The fragments were previously stored in an exposed location on an old shelf. During the cleaning of the pictorial surface unusual patterns were noticed that do not appear in Lang's publication. Surprisingly, the entire series of fragments (11 in total, 5 large and 6 small) not only has not been published, but is not mentioned in print.

Among these fragments with naval themes there was no written indication regarding their context, but they were stored together with other fragments from Hall 64 that depict battle scenes. In 2003 we found many other fragments from Hall 64 in old boxes, almost all of them poorly preserved. Contextual information was still preserved on four wooden tags (HS7- Ext. 5 plaster fragments from wall HSW or high up on wall S, R. H., p. 144, 26-6-53; HS7- Ext. 6, plaster from floor near wall HSW, R. H., p. 150-151, 27-6-53; HS7-Ext. 7, R. H., p. 181, 3-7-53), and we had stored these together with the published fragments found in Hall 64.

Affinities were immediately noticed between these fragments and those with ship patterns as regards the texture of the surfaces, the thickness of the mortars, and their state of preservation. After a preliminary cleaning of the surfaces of the fragments studied in 2003, we found a small piece with a zig-zag pattern that joined to an edge of one of the large fragments, discovered in 2004, that evinced the exact same pattern. This join allowed us to determine definitively that Hall 64 was the context of the unpublished fragments with naval themes.

Presumably the poor state of their preservation discouraged Lang from investing time in cleaning and further studying these. Their surfaces gave us the impression that they had never, in fact, been cleaned; earth still adhered to them and they had been removed from the floor of the room by applying plaster to their back. It is now a major priority that these pieces be properly restored, so that the maximum amount of information relevant to the iconography of these unique scenes can be recovered.

The background of the composition seems to have been originally purple, but fire altered dramatically the original polychromy. Poorly preserved areas with traces of purple colour recall the purple dye used as a background mixed with blue for the main battle scene of Hall 64. Purple background has elsewhere been attested so far only in the main palace building on the main compositions of the vestibule (Procession Scene) and the Throne room (Lyre Player and the so-called "Bull's Shoulder"), and, from the Southwest building, only in Hall 64.

Shaw's intuition that there should be in Hall 64 a naval theme in Hall 64 seems confirmed, although the fragments from the ne fresco dump on which she based her argument do not come from this room. The checkerboard patterns that they share with the battle scenes from Hall 64 cannot be taken to prove that they derive from the same composition. In the first place, this pattern also appears in room 5 and in room 20 (and also in the nws fresco dump). In the second place, and of greater importance, is the fact that a different black colour was employed in each case to trace the checkerboard pattern. The black used on Shaw's fragments from the ne fresco dump is made of an organic black, presumably carbon black; in contrast, the black used on fragments from the border from 64 is pyrolusite, a regional mineral that is also attested in other parts of the battle scene fragments published by Lang.

3. Re-examination of the Stratigraphy and Contents of Tombs

Joanne M. Murphy, University of Akron

Between 1939 and 1966 Carl Blegen and an international team of archaeologists excavated 5 cemeteries as part of his investigations of the Palace of Nestor and its environs. The human remains from these tombs have been recently restudied by Lynne Schepartz and Sari Miller-Antonio. The purpose of my work is to reconstruct an archaeological context for their analyses by studying the way in which each grave was constructed and by collecting all available information about those objects that were buried with the dead and locations of such finds in the graves.

My research plan consists of the following stages:

  1. study of the original excavation notebooks and the physical remains still preserved of the excavated tombs;
  2. examination of the artifacts from the tombs that are at present stored in the Chora Museum and in the National Museum in Athens;
  3. integration of the results of my investigations with those of Schepartz and Miller-Antonio.

I suspect that as a result of my research it will be possible to make more definitive statements than is now possible about the chronology of the tombs, the rituals practiced in them, about evolution in rituals through time, about the relationship of tombs to others in the same cemeteries and of one cemetery to another, and about the status of the people buried in the tombs and their position within the social hierarchy that was dominated by the Palace of Nestor.

In June 2004, first steps in this project were taken. Preliminary study at that time suggests that there remain from the Vayenas tomb some 850 sherds (including a pithos lid); from the Tsakalis tombs, more than 1100 sherds; and from Tholos 3 between 400-500 body sherds, of which nearly 100 appear to be chronologically diagnostic. In addition there are ca. 850 sherds preserved from the Kokkevis tombs. More than 100 small finds from the tombs are stored in the Museum of Hora. These include beads (predominately blue paste, but also some amethyst and other stones), obsidian and chert tools (blades, flakes and arrowheads), amber (several poorly preserved pieces), and metal (some small pieces of bronze and gold).

4. Faunal Remains

Paul Halstead, University of Sheffield Valasia Isaakidou, University of London

This year, the examination of faunal remains:

  1. focussed on preliminary sorting, washing and marking of the remaining unstudied material - this was essentially completed;
  2. also completed preliminary sorting of a cardboard box full of finds from EBW, excavated in July 1960 and studied by Nobis on 20.9.89; this was handed to us by Professor Korres from among his things and is additional to our list of outstanding boxes made at end of 2003 season;
  3. managed to reassign to their parent contexts most of the remaining rarities‚ extracted by Nobis from their original bags;
  4. managed to link numerous bags of bone pulled by Stocker, Davis and others from pottery with original lots of animal bone; in several cases, one or other of the duplicate bags contains additional context information, which should be helpful; the size of the fragments coming from the ?pottery bags, at least in the Lagos area, rather suggests that Blegen was sieving some deposits (but see below);
  5. completed detailed recording of trenches JP 64.1, JP 64.4, JP64.4 (Œ65 Extension), JP64.6, JP64.10 and S5.

Observations in 2004 are consistent with those listed in 2003 report. The following additional points may be made:

  1. although we have not yet attempted analysis of the data in terms of context or taphonomic variables, we continue to encounter what seem likely to be meaningful differences between deposits in terms of the proportion of wild animals and in terms of the relative proportions of the principal domesticates;
  2. we continue to encounter mainly adult teeth of sheep and suspect the presence of castrated males in some deposits - both observations, if confirmed, would be consistent with Linear B;
  3. we continue to encounter small female and large male cattle (in contrast to the emphasis on big males in the burnt groups) and again found several specimens with pathologies potentially attributable to traction;
  4. as noted last year for the Paraskevopoulos group and JP 64.11, we found numerous examples of articulating bones in JP 64.6, indicating relatively undisturbed deposits (contrasting with our pessimism last year on seeing that this material included several pottery lots grouped together);
  5. in JP 64.4, irregularities in surface colouring suggested that articulating bones (e.g., radius and ulna) had survived discard and burial undisturbed (asin JP 64.6 and JP 64.11) but that matching specimens had been lost during excavation (contrasting with the hints of sieving in Lagou);
  6. surface preservation on some of the JP material is good and recognizable cut marks are relatively abundant; in some cases, the distinctive and repetitive nature of some cut marks in these relatively undisturbed deposits made us think of quite specific butchery episodes (i.e., single butchers and/or single events).

With the completion of the JP boxes, we have now made detailed records of >7300 specimens. Outstanding are still most of Lagou, all of WGH+CKK 62, most of PNW/GP, most of EBW and a few small miscellaneous bags, but these have all been pre-processed to a substantial degree, so we still hope to finish in two more study seasons. With the not inconsiderable size of the assemblage, the relatively undisturbed nature of some deposits, and the fact that the labels on the bone bags are gradually becoming more intelligible, we are optimistic that full publication of the faunal remains will yield valuable results.

5. Storage of Wall Painting Fragments in Apotheke 2 of the Archaeological Museum of Hora

1 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
2 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
3 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
4 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
5 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
6 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
7 Room 1 - Exterior propylon
8 Rooms 1/2 - Exterior propylon, top layer of interior propylon
9 Rooms 1/2 - Exterior propylon, top layer of interior propylon
10 Rooms 1/2 - Exterior propylon, top layer of interior propylon
11 Rooms 1/2 - Exterior propylon, top layer of interior propylon
12 Room 2 - Interior propylon
13 Room 2 - Interior propylon
14 Room 2 - Interior propylon
15 Room 2 - Interior propylon
16 Rooms 3/4 - Court + Portico
17 Rooms 3/4 - Court + Portico
18 Rooms 3/4 - Court + Portico
19 Room 5 - Vestibule
20 Room 5 - Vestibule
21 Room 5 - Vestibule
22 Room 5 - Vestibule
23 Room 5 - Vestibule
24 Room 5 - Vestibule
25 Room 5 - Vestibule
26 Room 5 - Vestibule
27 Room 5 - Vestibule
28 Room 5 - Vestibule
29 Room 6 - Throne room
30 Room 6 - Throne room
31 Room 6 - Throne room
32 Room 6 - Throne room
33 Room 6 - Throne room
34 Room 6 - Throne room
35 Room 6 - Throne room
36 Room 6 - Throne room
37 Room 6 - Throne room
38 Room 6 - Throne room
39 Room 6 - Throne room
40 Room 6 - Throne room
41 Room 6 - Throne room
42 Room 6 - Throne room
43 Room 10
44 Room 10
45 Room 11 or Room 17?
46 Room 11 or Room 17?
47 Room 12
48 Room 12
49 Room 12
50 Room 12
51 Rooms 14/15
52 Room 16
53 Room 16
54 Room 16
55 Rooms 17/19
56 Rooms 18/19
57 Room 20
58 Room 20
59 Room 20
60 Room 20
61 Rooms 22/24
62 Rooms 22/24
63 Rooms 25/28
64 Room 31
65 Room 31
66 Room 31
67 Room 31
68 Room 31
69 Room 31
70 Room 31
71 Room 32
72 Room 32
73 Room 32
74 Room 32
75 Rooms 30/33/34
76 Rooms 26/33/34
77 Rooms 38/39
78 Room 43
79 Room 43
80 Room 43
81 Room 43
82 Room 43
83 Room 43
84 Room 43
85 Room 44
86 Room 44
87 Room 44
88 Room 44
89 Room 44
90 Room 45
91 Room 45
92 Room 46
93 Room 46
94 Room 46
95 Room 46
96 Room 46
97 Room 46
98 Room 46
99 Room 46
100 Room 46
101 Room 46
102 Room 46
103 Room 46
104 Room 46
105 Room 46
106 Room 46
107 Room 46
108 Room 46
109 Room 46
110 Room 46
111 Room 46
112 Room 46
113 Room 46
114 Room 46
115 Room 46
116 Rooms 47/48
117 Room 48
118 Rooms 49/50
119 Rooms 49/50
120 Rooms 48/49/50/53
121 Rooms 48/49/50/53
122 Rooms 48/49/50/53
123 Rooms 48/49/50/53
124 Rooms 48/49/50/53
125 Room 54
126 Room 54
127 Room 54
128 Rooms 59/61
129 Rooms 60/61
130 Room 64
131 Room 64
132 Room 64
133 Room 64
134 Room 64
135 Room 64
136 Room 64
137 Room 64
138 Room 64
139 Room 64
140 Room 64
141 Room 64
142 Room 64
143 Room 64
144 Room 64
145 Room 64
146 Rooms 73/88 ?
147 Southwestern building, Court 88
148 Area MNE 1957, new 122, 98 ?
149 Area MNE 1957
150 Room 105, Wine Magazine (Area MZ, Magazine D)
151 Area M, Trench 2E2, north est of ashlar wall (North Est)
152 North West Slope
153 NWS
154 NWS
155 NWS
156 NWS
157 NWS
158 NWS
159 NWS
160 NWS
161 NWS
162 NWS
163 NWS
164 NWS
165 NWS
166 NWS
167 NWS
168 NWS
169 NWS
170 NWS
171 NWS
172 NWS
173 NWS
174 NWS
175 NWS
176 NWS
1771 NWS
178 NWS
179 NWS
180 NWS
181 NWS
182 EBW 60, SW area of palace ( west of room 63, south of 64, 65)
183 EBW 60
184 EBW 60
185 EBW 60
186 EBS 62
187 EBW 58
188 EBW 58
189 Outside northeast wall
190 Outside northeast wall
191 Outside northeast wall
192 SW
193 Northwest of Southwestern building
194 WK 1962
195 WK 1962
196 WK 1962
197 WK 1962
198 WK 1962
199 WK 1962
200 RH Plaster
201 1959, selected plaster, GP, MR, EPB
202 PNW 1958
203 PNW 1958
204 PNW 1958
205 Area MZ
206 Area MZ
207 Trenches 1964
208 Trenches 1964

6. Artifacts from Tombs Studied in Hora: 2004

6.1. Objects in Apotheke 2:

8 large wooden boxes of material marked:

6.2. Objects in the Chora Museum:

CM Number Object
2107 ?
2043b Amber?
? Bag of Pottery K.1 17/7/57
2155 Bead
??60 Bead
2901g Bead
2901b Bead Amethyst
2901 Bead frag
? Bead frag
2022 Beads
2043 Beads
2058 Beads
2059 Beads
2060 Beads
2061 Beads
2063 Beads
2070 Beads
2073 Beads
2074 Beads
2078 Beads
2078 Beads
2079 Beads
2080 Beads
2081 Beads
2083 Beads
2084 Beads
2093 Beads
2095 Beads
2174 Beads
2180 Beads
2180 Beads
? Beads
2020a Beads
2021a Beads
2031e Beads
2034d Beads
2055d Beads
2900a Beads
2900a Beads
2900b Beads
2900b Beads
2900b Beads
2901a Beads
2901a Beads
2901a Beads
2901b Beads
2901g Beads
2123 Bronze
2123 Bronze
2123 Bronze
2123 Bronze
2123 Bronze
2123 Bronze
2124 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2130 Bronze
2132 Bronze
2132 Bronze
2135 Bronze
2182 Bronze
2188 Bronze
? Bronze
2040e Bronze
? Bronze Arrow
? Bronze Bowl
2199 Bronze Cauldron
2366 Bronze Cauldron
2099 Bronze Dagger
2199 Bronze Dagger
2201 Bronze Dagger
2205 Bronze Dagger
2912 Bronze Dagger
2913 Bronze Dagger
? Bronze Dagger (3)
2202 Bronze Disc
2203 Bronze Disc
? Bronze Disc
2056 Bronze Knife
2151 Bronze Knife
2192 Bronze Knife
2206 Bronze Knife
2914 Bronze Knife
? Bronze Knife
? Bronze Knife
Bronze Knife
? Bronze Knife (2)
? Bronze leaf
Bronze lump
2082 Bronze Pin
2158 Bronze Pin
2051 Bronze Pin (4)
? Bronze Pin w/ivory handle
2036 Bronze Rivets
2087 Bronze Rivets
2189 Bronze Rivets
2058 Bronze Rivets (1)
? Bronze Rivets (3)
2064 Bronze Rivets (7)
? Bronze Rivets (8)
2031a Bronze Rivets + beads
2028 Bronze Sheeting
2048 Bronze Sheeting
2067 Bronze Sheeting
2072 Bronze Sheeting
2209 Bronze Swords (1)
? Bronze Swords (1)
? Bronze Swords (4)
? Bronze Swords (4)
2004a Bronze Tweezers
2004d Bronze Tweezers
2004g Bronze Tweezers
2075 Bronze Weighing Scales
2122 Chalk
2118 Chert
2157 Chert
2164 Chert and Obsidian
2163 Chert and Obsidian (4)
2161 Chert and Obsidian (6)
2018 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2020 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2033 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2060 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2062 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2068 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2069 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2079 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2094 Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2015a Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2021d Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2021g Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2022e Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2034a Chert and Obsidian Arrowheads
2059 Chert Arrowhead
2043e Chert Arrowhead
2024 Female Figurine
2164 Female Figurine
2906 Female Figurine
2907 Female Figurine
2170a Female Figurine
2170b Female Figurine
2162 Figurine head
2100 Gold Diadem
2149 Gold Knife
2177 Gold Necklace
? Gold Sheeting
2117 Gone to Study
2049 Ivory
2052 Ivory
2058 Ivory
2044 Ivory (10)
2178 Ivory Beads
2176 Ivory inlay
? Ivory Pin
2001a Ivory Pin
2026 Mirror
2171 Necklace
2167 Obsidian blades
1516 Pottery Alabastron
1517 Pottery Alabastron
1518 Pottery Alabastron
1519 Pottery Alabastron
1537 Pottery Alabastron
1540 Pottery Alabastron
1541 Pottery Alabastron
1542 Pottery Alabastron
1544 Pottery Alabastron
1545 Pottery Alabastron
1550 Pottery Alabastron
1552 Pottery Alabastron
1554 Pottery Alabastron
1558 Pottery Alabastron
1565 Pottery Alabastron
1567 Pottery Alabastron
1571 Pottery Alabastron
1581 Pottery Alabastron
1584 Pottery Alabastron
1589 Pottery Alabastron
1590 Pottery Alabastron
1591 Pottery Alabastron
1592 Pottery Alabastron
1593 Pottery Alabastron
1594 Pottery Alabastron
1599 Pottery Alabastron
1621 Pottery Alabastron
1629 Pottery Alabastron
1757 Pottery Alabastron
1760 Pottery Alabastron
1877 Pottery Alabastron
2841 Pottery Alabastron
2842 Pottery Alabastron
2843 Pottery Alabastron
2848 Pottery Alabastron
2849 Pottery Alabastron
2859 Pottery Alabastron
2862 Pottery Alabastron
2865 Pottery Alabastron
2866 Pottery Alabastron
2868 Pottery Alabastron
2869 Pottery Alabastron
2872 Pottery Alabastron
2873 Pottery Alabastron
2885 Pottery Alabastron
2893 Pottery Alabastron
2894 Pottery Alabastron
2840 Pottery Alabastron?
2859 Pottery Alabastron?
?173 Pottery Amphora
2863 Pottery Amphora min
1515 Pottery Bowl
1541 Pottery Bowl
1766 Pottery Bowl
2028 Pottery Bowl
2838 Pottery Bowl
2887 Pottery Bowl
2897 Pottery Bowl
1543 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1555 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1557 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1587 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1659 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1712 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1715 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1717 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1721 Pottery Bowl w/handle
1746 Pottery Bowl w/handle
2864 Pottery Bowl w/handle
2888 Pottery Bowl w/handle
? Pottery Bowl w/handle
1707 Pottery conical cup
1709 Pottery conical cup
1710 Pottery conical cup
1719 Pottery conical cup
1720 Pottery conical cup
2852 Pottery conical cup
2878 Pottery conical cup
2878 Pottery conical cup
1657 Pottery Cup
1658 Pottery Cup
1747 Pottery Cup
2881 Pottery Cup
2884 Pottery Cup
2892 Pottery Cup
1535 Pottery Dipper
1553 Pottery Dipper
1596 Pottery Dipper
1630 Pottery Dipper
2844 Pottery Dipper
2882 Pottery Dipper
2886 Pottery Dipper
2886 Pottery Dipper
1532? Pottery Dipper
1548 Pottery Feeding Bottle
1749 Pottery Feeding Bottle
2834 Pottery Feeding Bottle
2867 Pottery Feeding Bottle
2874 Pottery Feeding Bottle
2889 Pottery Feeding Bottle
1604 Pottery Fragment
2373 Pottery Fragment
2856 Pottery Fragment
2879 Pottery Fragment
2880 Pottery Fragment
? Pottery Fragment
1547 Pottery Jar
1575 Pottery Jar
1627 Pottery Jar
1660 Pottery Jar
1745 Pottery Jar
1751 Pottery Jar
1754 Pottery Jar
1755 Pottery Jar
1758 Pottery Jar
1762 Pottery Jar
1763 Pottery Jar
1764 Pottery Jar
1765 Pottery Jar
2833 Pottery Jar
2860 Pottery Jar
2870 Pottery Jar
2895 Pottery Jar
2895 Pottery Jar
? Pottery Jar
1538 Pottery Jug
1556 Pottery Jug
1633 Pottery Jug
1688 Pottery Jug
1750 Pottery Jug
1756 Pottery Jug
2861 Pottery Jug
2839 Pottery Jug Miniature
2859 Pottery Kantharos
? Pottery Krater
1539 Pottery Kylix
1559 Pottery Kylix
1567 Pottery Kylix
1605 Pottery Kylix
1606 Pottery Kylix
1620 Pottery Kylix
2668 Pottery Kylix
2832 Pottery Kylix
2836 Pottery Kylix
2837 Pottery Kylix
2845 Pottery Kylix
2847 Pottery Kylix
2896 Pottery Kylix
1628 Pottery Kylix base
2851 Pottery Kylix Miniature
1579 Pottery Large Decorated Jug
1570 Pottery Large Decorated Kylix
1600 Pottery Large Jars
1601 Pottery Large Jars
1602 Pottery Large Jars
1572 Pottery Large Plain Jug
1386 Pottery Large Three Handled Jar
1568 Pottery Large Three Handled Jar
2853 Pottery Pot Miniature
1588 Pottery Pouring Vessel
1563/2563 Pottery Pouring Vessel
2890 Pottery Rhyton
1582 Pottery Saucer w/handle
1598 Pottery Saucer w/handle
2883 Pottery Saucer w/handle
1569 Pottery Small Three Handled Jar
1576 Pottery Squat Three Handled Jar
1521 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1556 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1561 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1562 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1563 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1564 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1565 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1759 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1761 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2835 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2846 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2857 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2875 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2876 Pottery Stirrup Jar
2898 Pottery Stirrup Jar
1758 Pottery Stirrup Jar Top
1528 Pottery Stirrup Jar?
1748 Pottery Stirrup Jar?
1753 Pottery Stirrup Jar?
2858 Pottery Stirrup Jar?
1603 Pottery Tankard
2861 Pottery Tankard
1580 Pottery Tea Cup
2854 Pottery Tea Cup
1577 Pottery Watering Can
2058 Rivets, Teeth, Beads
2125 Seal
2136 Seal frag
2159 Spindle Whorl
2899 Spindle Whorl
2173 Spindle Whorls (3)
? Spindle Whorls (4)
? Stone Hones
2085 Stone Pestle
2169 Swords
2189 Swords
2196 Swords
2198 Swords